Former pope Benedict XVI has associated same-sex marriage with the Antichrist in a new biography published in Germany.

In the authorized biography, titled Benedict XVI – A Life, the former pope, who resigned in 2013 but remains at the Vatican, also attacked humanist ideologies as a threat to the church.

“The real threat to the church … is in the global dictatorship of purportedly humanist ideologies,” Benedict, 93, wrote, according to The Guardian.

As pope, Benedict faced criticism over his attitude toward social issues, including calling on western nations to oppose marriage equality, which he described as “harmful” to society. In the new biography, he offers new attacks.

“A century ago, anyone would have thought it absurd to talk about homosexual marriage,” he wrote. “Today those who oppose it are excommunicated from society.” He added that it was natural for people to fear the spiritual power of the Antichrist.