The final witness for the state of Michigan in a case challenging the state's ban on gay marriage testified that his belief that unrepentant gays are going to hell does not impact his judgment.

Canadian economist Douglas Allen explained that his 2013 report on gay parents showed that children raised by gay parents are less likely to graduate compared with children raised by married heterosexual couples. The study was based on Canadian Census data of 8,632 people.

Under cross-examination, attorney Ken Mogill asked: “Is it accurate that you believe the consequence of engaging in homosexual acts is a separation from God and eternal damnation? In other words, they're going to hell?”

Allen, a Protestant, answered: “Without repentance, yes.”

Plaintiffs are a lesbian couple wishing to marry so that they may jointly adopt their three foster children.

Closing arguments are set for Friday.