Gay marriage foes vowed on Thursday to continue fighting as gay and lesbian couples began exchanging vows in Minnesota and Rhode Island.

After a proposed constitutional amendment limiting marriage to heterosexual unions was defeated at the polls in November, Minnesota lawmakers approved a law legalizing gay nuptials.

As the law took effect on Thursday, opponents said that they would hold politicians accountable.

“The majority of Minnesotans support marriage between one man and one woman, and they deserve a majority of representatives in their government who do as well,” said John Helmberger, chairman of Minnesota for Marriage and CEO of the Minnesota Family Council, groups opposed to marriage equality.

Helmberger announced a new campaign aimed at ousting lawmakers who support marriage equality.

“Minnesotans around the state have been asking 'what's next?' after a group of legislators forced same-sex 'marriage' on the state. The Marriage Majority Initiative will help them answer that question by restoring a pro-Marriage majority in their state government. We are blessed to live in a country where The People can choose their representation. And, when their chosen representation fails them, the People have the opportunity to choose new leaders,” Helmberger said.

The National Organization for Marriage (NOM), the nation's most vociferous opponent of marriage equality, said that it would “work tirelessly to hold the politicians accountable for this travesty” and called Thursday a “sad day” for Minnesota and Rhode Island.

“This is a sad day in Minnesota and Rhode Island as politicians have allowed a mockery to be made of the institution of marriage, which throughout our history has been our only social institution to bring men and women together for the benefit of any children born of their union,” Brown said in a blog post. “Today Minnesota and Rhode Island embark on a new path that jettisons the interests of children from their state marriage law, and puts people of faith in harm's way for being punished for their beliefs. We will work tirelessly to hold the politicians accountable for this travesty.”

The group renewed its pledge to spend up to $500,000 in Minnesota and $100,000 in Rhode Island on the issue.

“When the inevitable consequences happen, we will make sure that voters know who is responsible for them,” said Brown. “This issue is far from settled in either of these states.”